Shodo is written on special paper (washi) using a bamboo and animal hair brush called a fude. The ink, called sumi, is obtained from charcoal and traditionally comes in sticks which must be rubbed with water on an inkstone until the right consistency is achieved. Learning to rub the ink is an essential part of calligraphy study.

For any particular piece of paper, the calligrapher has but one chance to create with the brush. The brush strokes cannot be corrected and even a lack of confidence will show up in the work. The calligrapher must concentrate and be fluid in execution. The brush writes a statement about the calligrapher at a moment in time.

Retrieved from and

Unless otherwise stated, the content of this page is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License